Royal Chitwan National Park
Royal Chitwan National Park was established in 1973. It occupies an area of 932 sq. kms. It is the oldest National park in Nepal . It is situated in the sub-tropical inner Terai lowlands of South-Central Nepal . The Park was designated as a World Heritage Site in 1984.
Within the park lie the Churia hills, ox-bow lakes, and the flood plains of Rapti, Reu and Narayani Rivers . The Churia hills rise gradually towards the east from 150m. to over 800m. elevation. The lower but more rugged Someshwor hills occupy most of the western portion of the park. The flood plains of Chitwan contain rich alluvial soils. The Narayani and Rapti Rivers have delineated the park boundaries in the north and west, and the Reu river and Someshwor hills in the south and south-west. It shares its eastern border with the Parsa Wildlife Reserve.
There are over 450 species of birds in the Park. Among the endangered birds are the Bengal jolrican, giant hornbill, lesser florican, black stork and white stork. Common birds seen in the Park inclde the peafowl, red jungle fowl, and different species of egrets, herons, kingfishers, flycatchers and woodpeckers. The best time for bird watching is March and December. More than 45 species of amphibians and reptiles occur in the Park, some of which are the marsh corcodile, cobra, green pit viper and various species of frogs and tortoises. The Park is actively engaged in the scientific studies of several species of wild fauna and flora. There are more than 43 species of mammals in the Park. The Park is especially renowned for the endangered one-horned rhinoceros, the tiger and the gharial crocodile. It also harbors endangered species such as gaur, wild elephant, four-horned antelope, striped hyena, pangolin, Gangetic dolphin, monitor lizard and python. Other animals found in the Park include the sambar, chital, hog deer, barking deer, sloth bear, palm civet, langur and rhesus monkey.
The park is influenced by a tropical monsoon climate with relatively high humidity. Winter, spring and monsoon are the three main seasons. The cool winter season occurs from October to February. Spring begins in March and is soon followed summer that ends in early June. Summer days are typically hot with up to an average 30C daytime temperature. The monsoon usually begins at the end of June and continues until September. The mean annual rainfall is about 21-50 mm. and during this time of the year rivers are flooded and most of the roads are virtually impassable.
Langtang National Park
Langtang National Park was established in 1970/71. It occupies an area of 1710 sq. kms. Alpine pastures, sub-alpine scrub and dense forests of pines, rhododendrons, maples and oaks support a large variety of mammal and bird species. In the lower forests are leopards, Himalayan black bear, and wild boars. In the higher regions are musk deer and Himalayan Thar. Many varieties of pheasants and partridges, including Nepal 's national bird, the Danphe, can be seen in the alpine meadows.
Sagarmatha National Park
Sagarmatha National Park was established in 1976. It occupies an area of 1148 sq. kms. It is located in the north-east of Kathmandu , in the Khumbu region of Nepal . The park includes the world's highest peak, Mt. Everest , and several other well-known peaks such as Lhotse , Nuptse, Cho-Oyu, Pumori, Ama Dablam, Thamserku, Kwangde, Kangtaiga and Gyachung kang. The most famous would be the beautiful impeyan pheasant, the national bird of Nepal , but there are choughs, snow pigeons and Himalayan griffons among 130 others.
Over 35oosherpas use the park for cropping and grazing and their unique culture provides yet another reason to visit. There are several important monasteries.This is one of the most popular trekking regions in the Country, but it is only accessible by foot with the nearest airstrip at lukla and the road head at Lamosangu. Many trekkers visit, lured by the highest and the most spectacular mountain scenery in the world and sherpa culture.The Park was added to the list of world heritage sites in 1979.
Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Sagarmatha National Park was established in1984. It occupies an area of 3555 sq. kms. Shey-Phoksundo National Park is situated in the mountain of Western Nepal , covering parts of Dolpa and Mugu Districts. It is the largest National Park in the country. It includes the highest lake Shey-Phoksundo.The park harbors some of the country's rarest animals, such as snow leopard, blue sheep and the thar.
Annapurna Conservation Area
Annapurna Conservation Area occupies an area of 2600 sq. kms. This area encompasses the Annapurna Massif, which includes middle hills, sub-alpine, alpine and trans- Himalayan dry plateau ecosystems. A world model for successful participatory natural resources management, the project has combined village development, education and conservation with the conservation education of trekkers.
Parsa Wildlife Reserve
Parsa Wildlife Reserve was established in 1984. It occupies an area of 499 sq.kms. Parsa Wildlife Reserve occupies parts of Chitwan, Makawanpur, Parsa and Bara Districts in central Nepa. The Reserve headquarter is situated at Adabar on the Hetauda Birgunj highway. The dominant landscape of the Reserve are the Churiya hills ranging from 750m to 950m and running east west through the Reserve.
Khaptad National Park
Khaptad national Park was established in 1984. It occupies an area of 225 sq. kms. This is the only park representative of the flora and fauna of Nepal 's western middle hills. This rolling plateau of mixed forest and grasslands supporting leopards, Himalayan black bears, and musk deer is singular in that conservation efforts there have been led by a remarkable Hindu holy man, the Khaptad Baba.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve was established in 1976. It occupies an area of 175 sq kms. About 850 species of birds are found in Nepal . With the opening of Koshi Tappu Reserve, bird watching is gaining grounds in Nepal . Koshi Tappu alone has recorded over 250 species of birds. Rare birds include Impeyean pheasant, the national bird, snow cock, snow pigeon, giant horn-bill, saras crane and babblers. The spiny babbler is a rare endemic variety found only in Nepal . Every year migratory birds from Tibet , Siberia and the northern mountains fly to the lowlands and Terai of Nepal. The Koshi Barrage is one of the most important migratory habitats. Bird watching is a very pleasant experience during late autumn and early spring when the migration occurs. Other parks and reserves also attract more birds and birdwatchers.
Makalu- Barun National Park
Makalu-Barun National Park was established in 1992. It occupies an area of 2330 sq.kms. It is on a planning stage. The park is bordered by Sagarmatha National Park , the Arun River and the Tivetan border; it includes the rich forested valleys of the Barun and seven other rivers.
Royal Bardia National Park
Royal Bardia National Park was established in 1976. It occupies an area of 968 sq, kms. It is situated south-west of Nepal . Rhinos have been Tran located from Chitwan, to this area of riverine forests, grasslands and low wooded hills. Lying along the Karnali and Babai Rivers , the park is an important preserve for the rare Gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin.
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve was established in 1983. It occupies an area of 1325 sq. kms. It adjoins Rukum, Myagdi and Baglung districts in the Dhaulagiri himal range in west Nepal . Putha, churen and gurja himal extend over the northern boundary of the Reserve. This is the only Hunting Reserve in the country, attraacting Nepalese and foreign hunters with blue sheep and other game animals.
Royal Shukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Royal Shukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve was established in 1974.It occupies an area of 155sq. kms. It is situated in the south-west of Nepal .It is considered the vest park for wild elephants, and the lake of RaniTal.
Rara National Park
Rara National Park was established in 1976. It occupies an area of 106 sq. kms.it is situated about 370 km north-west of Kathmandu . In the temperate conifer forests surrounding lovely Rara Lake are Himalayan black bears, yellow-throated martens, musk deer, and the ghoral and scrow.